I Need Help in Does the percentage energy from the macronutrients add up to 100% .2022-06-18 19:57:16
Methodology Take your 3-day weighed food record kept for Practical 1 and enter the data into Nutritics to determine the mean daily intake of (1) energy, (2) protein, (3) total fat, (4) carbohydrate, (5) alcohol, (6) fibre, (7) iron, (8) calcium and (9) total folate. Results for individual days are not required. If you did not keep your food record, you will need to repeat the 3-day weighing procedure – see page 20. Check that the average value for energy is similar to that calculated by hand in Practical 1. If there are any discrepancies, think about whether these are due to (i) errors in hand calculations, (ii) errors due to computer data entry errors, (iii) differences between using the food tables and a computerised nutrient analysis programme. You may want to find out which database Nutritics uses. Think about how can you explore this. Take the mean intake of the four macronutrients, i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol, for the 3-day period and calculate the percentage of energy each contributes to the mean energy intake. To do this you will need to use the Atwater factors (See lecture in week 9 and Geissler and Powers 2017 (p118) or alternative reference). Check that you are using the appropriate Atwater values for the units chosen. Does the percentage energy from the macronutrients add up to 100% ? If not, can you explain this discrepancy ? Compare the percentage energy intake from the macronutrients calculated for your own intake with the UK Dietary Reference Values, i.e. DRVs (UK Department of Health 1991). You will need to decide whether to use the figures for total energy intake or for food energy. Compare the mean intake of the micronutrients with one of the Dietary Reference Values. You will need to decide which value is most appropriate. UK Dept of Health. (1991). Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients in the UK. London: HMSO. (Chairman D. Acheson). Geissler C, Powers H (2017). Human nutrition 13th Oxford: OUP. Written report Write up your practical using the standard format for scientific studies, see the proforma for practical 1 which you will need to adapt for this practical. You are advised to think about what is required and to avoid copying the proforma. This practical is focussed on nutrient intake and comparison with DRVs. The first practical was focussed on energy balance, i.e. Do not change the layout or sections in the proforma: these are designed to help you. Do not use direct quotes in your report: you are expected to read and then explain ideas in your own words. Introduction – State briefly why assessing dietary intake is important and how intake Dietary Reference Values can be used to evaluate this. Appropriate scientific references, i.e. from a peer-reviewed source, must be cited in the text and listed at the end of the report using the format explained in the Guidelines for Referencing and Bibliographic Citations. This can be found on Canvas. A bibliography should not be used for this report. Footnotes should not be used. Aim – State the aim of the study you have undertaken, i.e. what you were trying to achieve. This should be one sentence. Method – Describe briefly what you have done. This should be written in proper sentences and include a sentence describing the subject studied. References should be included if used to undertake the method. This section must be written in the past tense and using the third person, i.e. ‘the subject weighed their food’ rather than ‘I weighed my food’. Show an example of your calculations to explain how you determined the percentage energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol. Do not provide any results in this section. Results – Summarise your findings from Nutritics in one concise table which should also include the Dietary Reference Values you have selected for comparison, i.e. is it a DRV, EAR, RNI or LRNI? You will need to think about this so that you can justify what you write. Do not include any raw data but refer to this in the appendix. When reporting numbers, think about the data and consider the number of decimal places. For this practical, use kcal rather than kJ for energy. Think about why you should not report total daily energy intake to two decimal places, i.e. as 2149.64 kcal. Check that you have used the correct units. Do not comment on the results in this section. Discussion – Comment on your results. These questions will help you think about what to write: Were your results expected? What are the implications if the subject continues to eat a diet like this for several months or year? How does proportion of energy in the subject’s diet compare with that in the average UK diet? How useful are the DRVs for assessing the intake of one person? Does a 3-day food record give enough information about a person’s nutritional intake? Comment on the methods used, highlighting their limitations and suggesting alternatives that could improve the study.
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