research paper on post disaster shelter reconstruction. Needs to be 12 pages.

Need an research paper on post disaster shelter reconstruction. Needs to be 12 pages. Please no plagiarism. Research has shown that sustainable post-disaster shelter reconstruction is crucial in strengthening resilience and provides full and equitable benefit (Ganapati & Ganapati, 2009 p.57). The principle of sustainable post-disaster shelter reconstruction requires that such reconstruction should meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the capacity of the coming generations to meet their needs (Ahmed, 2011 p.159).

There are certain challenges hinder sustainability in post-disaster shelter reconstruction and they include: massive displacement crisis, extensive physical destruction and limited accessible land. Effective shelter reconstruction in urban setting must therefore balance between all interests including, social equity, environment, as well as the economy. Provision of shelter in urban setting after a disaster should be considered as an integrated approach where technical, socio-economical, institutional as well as environmental concerns are considered in each and every stage of the reconstruction process (2010 p.103). As indicated by Hayles (2010 p.104), post-disaster shelter reconstruction process should ensure sustainable results not only with regard to design and construction activities, but also in ensuring ease of access to supply of water, roads as well as sanitation systems. Integrated approach to shelter reconstruction is therefore very important and should include livelihood opportunities, social structures and safety opportunities.

This paper focuses on post-disaster shelter reconstruction in urban environments with specific reference to shelter and settlement planning. It outlines the planning process for post-disaster shelter reconstruction within urban and critically analyses the roles of shelter practitioner including needs assessment, methodological approach, settlement planning & design and construction.

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