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. the correlational designs do not indicate causality and do not allow one to make causal inferences. since the research cannot determine which variable can cause changes in the other(s). Here arises the “third variable problem”, i.e. both variables might be being influenced by another unobserved or unnoticed third variable. Furthermore, there might develop the directionality problem, i.e. it might be impossible to understand the direction in which the causality is moving, for example, does aggressive behavior cause people to watch aggressive TV shows, or does watching aggressive TV shows cause aggressive behavior?

However, some correlational designs might permit the use of some causal statements. such as path analysis and cross-lagged panel designs.


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Some major types of Correlational Research Designs are:

• Bivariate Correlation

• Regression and Prediction

• Multiple Regression

• Factor Analysis

• Correlational Designs Used to Make Causal Conclusions

• Systems Analysis


Experimental research is the type of research that is conducted on the basis of the assumption that causal laws rule the world. These laws are essentially linear but are comparatively quite complicated and interactive.

The main goal behind the conduction of experimental research is to create cause-and-effect laws, while the main purpose is to eliminate and strike out alternative hypotheses. The more the alternative hypotheses are stricken out, the better the research is. If all the alternative hypotheses are eliminated, it can be said that the independent variable is the cause.

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